IntelliParticle specialises in the refinement and enhancement of multi-structure and single structure superconductive standard and nano-based carbons and graphites particularly tailor-made to suit innovative super-composite films coatings fabrics ceramics EMI RAF or EDS performance-based products.
The electrical heating solutions of Intelliparticle are based on the principle of resistive heating. The amount of current flowing at a given voltage is related to the electrical resistance of the conductor to its passage. By applying an electrical voltage to a resistor and applying a current flow, energy is transferred into the resistor. Thereby, the electrical energy is converted into thermal energy.
Resistive heating causes thermal radiation which causes a sun-like feeling of warmth. Radiation heat directly warms people and objects, rather than warming the surrounding air as is done by convection heaters. This radiant heat effect makes it an excellent and highly efficient choice for task specific spot heating, applying the heat where it is required rather than wasting it where it’s not needed.
The electric heat can be accurately applied at the precise point needed in a process, at high concentration of power per unit area or volume. Electric heating processes are generally clean, quiet, and do not waste energy by warming up surroundings to achieve results.
Intelliparticle designs systems with high electrical conductivity characteristics. An exact combination of different carbon materials are dispersed homogeneously into an easy to apply, aqueous system such as polyurethane, acrylic, etc.
The result is a new composite solution for electrical heating where the carbon material acts as the conductor in the matrix while the polymer is electrically isolating. Radiation heat is generated once a current flowing through the composite material is applied. The efficiency of our solutions converting electrical to thermal energy is almost 100%.
Through materials excellence and patent-pending processes, INTELLI PARTICLE is able to precisely tune the electrical resistance of the polymer matrix and so is able to address all voltage levels from 3V up to 230V or higher.
The solutions offered today cover a broad temperature range, up to industrial temperatures of over 500°C, with the maximum temperatures actually defined by the melting temperature of the respective polymers.
One of the main properties of carbon is high electrical conductivity. Polymer systems refined with carbon material become conductive if carbon particles in the system touch each other and thus, build a complete chain through the material from one side to the other.
The combination of different particle shapes and sizes allow an enormous variety of new products with different electrical parameters.
As a result the amazing electrical characteristics of carbons are unleashed via Intelliparticle’s new type of carbon composites.
A DISCUSSION OF THE SCIENCE
Emissivity and absorptivity
The emissivity of a surface with its absorption of incident radiation, the absorptivity of that surface. Kirchhoff’s Law explains why emissivities cannot exceed 1, since the largest absorptivity – corresponding to complete absorption of all incident light by a truly black object – is also 1. Mirror-like, metallic surfaces that reflect light will thus have low emissivity since the reflected light isn’t absorbed. A polished silver surface has an emissivity of about 0.02 near room temperature. Black soot absorbs thermal radiation very well; it has an emissivity as large as 0.97, and hence soot is a fair approximation to an ideal black body. Given two identical glass containers – one being of one colour A and another being of another colour B and that they would be filled with, say, some identical heated liquid, and then allowed to cool -And given that the emissivity of container coloured A and the emissivity of container coloured B is substantially different, then the rates of cooling would be different. [we would need to measure or otherwise determine what the ’emissivity’ of each specifically coloured glass is.] The emissivity of materials is of significant concern in some industries – for instance – if you are building a spaceship – and you want to keep parts of the spaceship cool or other parts warmer. The ‘colour’ (more precisely, the emissivity) of the surface of the ship will determine whether that portion of the spaceship will be cold, cool, warm, or hot. Three of the main attributes we would want to look at in an experiment that would demonstrate this would be:
- the material’s emissivity and
- the material’s thermal conductivity.
- the ability to improve the Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) of a HVAC or refrigeration system unit
To remove multiple external variables from your experiment – we might want to place both of the glasses of liquid into a black box (keeping them out of sunlight/away from external heat / light sources). If we paint one glass Black and the other glass White, which container will cool faster the black About the absorption of heat and emissivity in coffee cups: The cups would take heat energy from the coffee at same rate, given same material of cup, as this is conductive heat transfer, while the white cup will radiate heat to surrounding air more slowly than the black cup, and so in total the black cup of coffee will cool down quicker.
The Thermal images above are two different panels, one white and one black. The image demonstrates how the white panel is colder in direct sunlight for every 10 degrees. The black one is hotter 11.5 degrees over 40 degrees the black one is 4 degrees above shows it is conductive and will release energy quicker.
Thermal conductivity (k, also denoted as λ or κ) is a measure of a material’s ability to conduct. Heat transfer across materials of high thermal conductivity occurs at a higher rate than across materials of low thermal conductivity. The thermal conductivity is measured in watts per meter Kelvin (W/(m•K)). Copper has a thermal conductivity of 231 Btu/(hr-ft-F). This is higher than all other metals except Silver. Copper has a 60% better thermal conductivity rating than aluminium and a 3,000% better rating than stainless steel.
Thermal conductivity of some common metals
Metal Thermal conductivity (Btu/(hr-ft-F)) (W/(m•K))
Silver 247.87 429
Copper 231 399
Gold 183 316
Aluminium 136 235
Yellow brass 69.33 120
Cast iron 46.33 80.1
Stainless steel 8.1 14.0
Our Graphite/carbon 30 w/[m.K]
Thermal conductivity of the carbon graphite product we have created.
CONDUCTIVE GRAPHITES info from our patent
Thermal Conductivity: 500 to 1900W/mK Thermal conductivity (W/mK) X,Y direction ASTM E1461 1650~1900 1500~1700 1150~1400 700~1000 500~700
Z direction 25 15 15 15 15
IntelliParticle is working on a formulation to solve this problem, the solution will include:
1. A self- etching water based paint epoxy resin, solvent, free moisture cured, it actually can handle temperature up to 180 degrees C. 2.The product is designed to self -etching with a corroded surface.
3. The product will be rated with salt spray over 3000 hours.
4. As our product is primarily a carbon graphite solution will be much cheaper to produce than competing products.
5. Our product will also improve the thermal qualities of both the old units and possibly new condensers.
Electrically Conductive Compositions and their Uses by Cole Miller 1998
The present invention relates to a family of infrared radiating compositions having unique properties, and with a wide variety of utilitarian applications, along with the process of producing and using the same.
The compositions are electrically conductive, and when connected to appropriate electrical power sources, either alternating current (AC) or direct current (DC), convert electricity and produce electromagnetic oscillations falling within the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The radiation from the conversion of the consumed electrical energy, when intercepted by and falling upon objects of any nature, is converted into sensible heat, and thus warms by radiation. The particulate compositions and coatings themselves, at the same time, become hot to extremely hot, and by convection heat the air, gases, fluids and solids of any nature in the vicinity of the coatings, as well as heating by conduction the substrates on which the coatings are applied as well as the back supporting structures.
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